Is the Cost of Goods Sold on a Tax Return?


Businesses need to keep a record of all of its costs – whether directly or indirectly used in manufacturing its products for sale. These costs are referred as the cost of goods sold (COGS), and this evaluation shows up in the business’s profit and loss statement. It is also a vital part of the data, the company must account for its tax return.

The cost of goods sold is subtracted from gross incomes of a business to calculate the gross profit for a business during a certain time period. Gross receipt is the sum a business gains from sales throughout the year. With all of the business payments (including COGS), tax deductions are increased and business profit is decreased.

Considering the costs included in the cost of goods sold calculation will benefit the business to ensure not skipping any tax deductions.

What Is Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)?

The cost of goods sold also recognized as the cost of sales demonstrates costs that a business handles to make its products from resources or raw materials or purchasing products and reselling them.

These costs can be called the expense of the company as the products are sold in order to gain money.

How COGS Is Included In Business Taxes?

As a matter of fact, any type of business tax involves the cost of goods sold calculation since they are selling products. It involves using the same general basic calculation for all business types. However, the form is different based on the business types.

Business types include: Corporations, S corporations, partnerships, and LLCs.

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COGS Calculation On Business Tax Return

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) delivers logs to compute the Cost Of Goods Sold (COGS). Depending on the type of tax return your business is filing, you would choose the form. Schedule C is followed if you are a sole proprietors or single-owner LLCs. Rest of the business categories follow the computing as per the Form 1125-A.

Single-Owner LLC or Sole Proprietor

Single-owner LLCs  and sole proprietor compute and account the taxes as per Schedule C. Part III consists of the calculations for the cost of goods sold. This computing is summed up to other costs and earnings to attain a net taxable income for the company.

This sum is added with rest of the company’s revenue on Schedule 1, Line 12 of the 1040. After this procedure, the sum of Schedule 1 is progressed on the 1040 form.

Other Business Types Use Form 1125-A

IRS Form 1125-A is needed to compute the total of products sold for corporations, partnerships, and multiple-member LLCs and S corporations.

The form requires you to fill in the following data:

  • Inventory during the start of the year
  • Sum of purchases, price of labor, including additional costs
  • Inventory by the conclusion of the year
  • COGS Calculations
  • Each business is required to report the method they incorporated to value inventory

Below are the particulars for each business type:

Corporations: Based on the U.S. corporate income tax return, form 1120 is assists in computing the profit or loss, and finally the net income of all integrated businesses. To calculate the cost of goods sold, Form 1125-A is used as the calculations are included on Form 1120, Line 2.

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Partnerships and Multiple-owner LLCs: Form 1065, known as the U.S. return of partnership income, is taken into account by the partnerships in order to compute the profit and loss, and finally reach a net income. Through the Form 1125-A, the cost of goods sold (COGS) is computed as available on Form 1065, Line 2.

S Corporations: S corporation files their company’s income taxes based on Form 1120S. As per the calculations available on Form 1125-A, cost of goods sold are calculated through Form 1120S, Line 2.


Cost of goods sold (COGS) is significant as it redirects the cost of manufacturing a good or service for sale to a client. According to the Internal Revenue System, COGS needs to bea part of tax returns and is capable of reducing your business’s taxable income. Regardless of you being a traditional seller or an online dealer, the rules remain same in both cases.

Overall, it can be concluded that the calculation of the cost of goods sold is aligned with the tax returns. COGS is essential for each business as it is a permissible reduction in taxes. If a business doesn’t add this value, their business income will eventually increase than normal which results in higher taxes.