What are Auditing procedures?
Audit procedures are the modest steps that auditors deal with to verify the accuracy of the balances and accounts handed over to them by their clients.
Audit procedures vary for different classes of accounts and by the diversity and description of the client’s business themselves. Audit procedures guide the auditors to look at the balances and verify them from different ends to make their opinion on the accuracy of those balances.
These audit procedures will, therefore, help the auditor outline any discrepancies that exist.
Explaining accounts payables:
Accounts payables are the balances that an organization owes to its suppliers or service providers. When suppliers or service providers deliver their products to the organization, the description and prices are intimated in the sales invoices furnished by suppliers.
When these invoices are dealt with internally by the system, they are introduced in the accounts payables ledger. By accumulating these balances from different suppliers, a single accounts payable balance is extracted which is called accounts payable balance at the year-end.
Payables accounts are liability balances that will be compensated in the prospective periods to their corresponding creditors. They are posted under the current liability section of total liabilities, have a credit nature and increase the potential outflows of resources from the organization.
Purpose of applying audit procedures on accounts payables:
Balances in the financial statements are always exposed to associated risks. These risks may be either due to fraud or error which results in the misstatement of those balances.
Unique audit procedures are applied by the auditor to verify the assertions used in the balances such as existence, rights and obligations, completeness, accuracy, classification, and presentation.
Applying procedures on these assertions will guide the auditor to extract misstatements in payables balances if there are any. Assertions in payables will be explained in a structured detail below
Risks associated with the nature of accounts payables:
There are some universal risks associated with accounts payables. First, there is an inevitability about the human error which results in misstatements due to errors.
This risk is more probable when there is no synchronization in the accounts payables and other associated departments such as procurement. The reason there is a risk of misstatement in the payables balances is because of no segregation of duties in the payables division.
Allocating more human resources to the payables section means there is more domination over the balances. Segregation of duties also reduces the misstatement due to fraud.
Accounts payables balances may also be misstated due to fraud or unethical behavior of the client. Fraud may result because of personal perks such as acquiring supplies for higher prices than the original price of the material and then claim back those perks from vendors.
Unethical behavior means the client may reduce the accounts payables balance by different means to window dress the figures of the balance sheet for bright financials.
This can be because the client wants to increase the current ratio or other liquidity ratios to impress banks or other financial institutions for resources of finance.
How and what assertions are tested by audit procedures?
Assertions related to accounts payables that are necessary to be verified are listed below:
In the grounds of audit, testing the assertions related to transactions and balances are necessary to accomplish a fair and quality audit. Enough audit procedures are necessarily applied to analyze these assertions.
Existence is a verification process used to authenticate if the payables figures genuinely exist at the year-end. There are some occasions in which the payables balance may be higher than what is presented in the ledger.
There may be some balances that are not payable by the client and hence can be verified by sending confirmations to vendors.
Rights and obligations:
This assertion can be applied to accounts balances in terms of obligations the client holds for those balances. These obligations may include further penalties (obligations) if the client delays the payments. This can be verified by reading the terms and conditions among creditors and the client.
Completeness is the verification of accounts payables balances and checking if the general ledger balances are complete according to real payables listings. Sending direct confirmations to vendors will help in verifying these balances.
Verification of accuracy is to find if the totals extracted from individual balances are performed precisely. Recalculations procedures are carried out to audit this assertion.
Classification is the verification of a class of accounts payables. Auditors need to see if payables balances are perfectly classified in payables subclasses and debits and credits are accurately applied.
Presentation in accounts payables means that if there are any unusual figures in the accounts payables, then they should be presented in the notes to the financial statements to support them further by a narration.
Audit Procedures for verification of Payables balances:
As discussed above, misstatements may result because of fraud or error, the auditor should apply the following audit procedures to verify the year-end balances.
- Applying analytical procedures on payables balances against other periods to check any unusual increase or decrease.
- The auditor should observe the payables balance posting procedure. This will demonstrate to the auditor about the efficiency of the controls over this area.
- Compare current year’s opening balances to the previous year’s audited accounts closing balances to verify that the current year’s accounts are initiated with correct figures.
- Recalculate the figures from the general ledger and for the individual vendor’s balances to verify the accuracy.
- Obtain samples for vendors and inspect documentation to check that the correct figures are posted in the system. This procedure leads to knowing the process of client’s payables posting process
- Obtain the ledgers sample total balances for vendors and compare them with total balances from the listing to check that factual balances are recorded in the ledger.
- Recalculate the breakup balances of individual vendors to verify the total figures are correctly calculated.
- Comparing the individual payables amounts to their relative expense or purchase figures in the original supporting documents to verify that correct figures are recorded in the payables ledgers.
- Sampling various vendors figures from the ledger and checking if their corresponding transactions have occurred for genuine purposes.
- Sending direct confirmations to creditors to verify the amounts owed by the client to their vendors. This is a third party confirmation which is a highly relied procedure for the auditor.
- Obtaining the nature of payables balances and check that necessary corresponding disclosure is made in the notes to financial statements.