Fictitious assets can be defined as assets that are fake. They do not have a physical presence, and hence, these assets are not really assets in the true sense, but in fact, they are defined as assets that are mainly categorized as huge expenses or losses that occur within the company over the course of time, and tend to be unclaimed in the year in which they take place.
The main reason as to why these expense heads are treated as assets, and then expensed across several different years is the fact that this is considered to be a major expense for the business, and hence they are then spread across a number of years, as opposed to being treated as such during the course of one year only. Therefore, they are categorized as assets using journal entries that just convert expenses with a considerable value into assets.
Therefore, it can be seen that fictitious assets are intangible assets, with no physical existence. They are expenses that are treated as assets. Since they are not purchased by the company (with an intention of keeping them as assets), they have no realizable value.
They are continually amortized over the course of time, across a span of more than one financial year. The main reason for this particular categorization is the fact that these expenses, like assets, are expected to give returns over the course of more than one year.
However, since it is a considerable amount of money, recording them in one year altogether might have an adverse repercussion on the financials. Therefore, they are categorized as assets first, and then continually amortized over the course of time, as soon as the company is making profits, and it is certain that the company is generating a positive return.
Fictitious assets may, or may not exist on the balance sheet of a particular company. However, the following illustration shows how fictitious assets work, and in what circumstances do companies treat expenses at fictitious assets.
Newton Co. got incorporated on 1st January, 2020. Upon incorporation, they paid $60,000 as incorporation charges. However, during the first year of operations, they were not able to make substantial profit.
They also incurred marketing promotional expenses of $40,000, in addition to a discount at which they issued shared. The total discount amount was $55,000. End of the year, Newton Co. decided to categorize all three expenses as fictitious assets. They are expected to earn profits from the next year, so they decided to amortize these fixed assets as soon as they are able to generate profits.
Difference between Fictitious Assets and Fixed Assets
The main difference between fictitious assets and fixed assets is the fact that fixed assets are mostly tangible in nature (except for goodwill). They normally have a realizable value, and they are subsequently expected to generate returns over the useful life of the assets. In the same manner, fictitious assets have no realizable value.
They are only placed on the balance sheet as per the amount that has already been paid. It cannot be depreciated, or sold once it is paid for. It carries forward from one year to the next, unless the amount is fully amortized over the course of time.
In the same manner, it can also be seen that fictitious assets do not drive a tangible value. Estimating the amount of value addition as a result of this particular transaction is questionable. However, in the case of fixed assets, the returns that are expected to be generated can be estimated and calculated well in advance.
List of Fictitious Assets
There are numerous different examples of fictitious assets. Some of the examples of fictitious assets are as follows:
Promotional Marketing Expenditures: Professional and promotional marketing is considered to be a significant investment for the company. For organizations that have considerable marketing budgets (mainly in the case of ATL Marketing), the benefits of such marketing campaigns are rendered over a period of more than one year. Therefore, they are categorized as fictitious assets, and then amortized over the period with which it is expected to return considerable value.
Preliminary Expenditures: Preliminary expenditures are expenses that occur in the initial stages of the business. This might include costs associated with incorporation, legal and licensing fees, as well as other expenses that are associated to bring the business in a running condition. These expenses are considered significant in nature, and therefore, they are often treated as fictitious assets, and then amortized over the forthcoming years.
Discount allowed on the issue of shares: In the case where the company issues shares at a discount, the discount amount is not considered as an expense (or a loss). Instead, it is considered to be a fictitious asset, and then it is expensed over the course of the year.
Permanent Current Assets can be described as assets that are supposed to be maintained by the business over the course of time in order to ensure that the company is able to run its operations. These assets are considered to be current assets that tend to stay persistent on the balance sheet of the company over the course of time.
These are the base accounts based which are carried forward from one year to another, and their sustenance is simply proof of the fact that the business is maintaining itself for the near future. Regardless of the fact that the figures within these accounts change and fluctuate from one year to another, yet these categories of accounts will stay intact.
However, they are still classified as ‘current’ assets, because they are expected to convert into cash over the period of the current year. In other words, they are categorized as current assets because the time to the liquidation of these current assets is within a time frame of 12 months, and hence, by definition of current assets, they are classified as such.
Example of Permanent Current Assets
Permanent Current Assets are classified as assets that are consistently presented on the balance sheet from one year to the next. Some examples of permanent current assets include the following:
Inventory: This mainly includes the inventory that is held by the company for purposes of reselling (in the case where the company is a trading concern) or inventory that is in the form of finished goods, ready to be sold to the market (if the businesses is a manufacturing concern). It would make sense for the businesses to have inventory at any given point in time because it is representative of the fact that the company is a going concern.
Accounts Receivable: During the normal course of the business, a lot of transactions are carried out on credit. In this case, businesses have certain receivables that need to be collected from the customers of the business. This is an account that is carried forward from one year to the next, and it is highly unlikely for businesses to have absolutely no receivables at the end of the particular business year.
Cash: Cash in Bank or cash in hand is the running balance that every company needs to maintain in order to pay day-to-day expenses. This includes petty cash, as well as all the current accounts that the business is maintaining. It is necessary for the bare survival of the businesses, and hence, it is considered as a permanent current asset, because it tends to exist with the business at all times.
Permanent Current Assets vs Temporary Current Assets
The underlying difference between permanent current assets and temporary current assets is the fact that temporary current assets, as suggested by the name, are current asset classes that exist on the financials for a short while.
A business may, or may not have temporary current assets at the end of a given financial year. Just like permanent current assets, they are assets the utility of which is expected to be derived within a period of 12 months. Hence, it is classified as a current asset.
In the same manner, it can also be seen that temporary current assets tend to fluctuate with time, and may or may not exist, at all on the balance sheet.
Temporary assets can be defined as any current asset that is not pivotal for the company’s existence, and therefore, having those assets are good, but is not entirely essential for the survival of the company.
Example of Temporary Current Assets
All current assets which are on a temporary basis on the balance sheet of the company are categorized as temporary current assets. Some examples of temporary current assets are as follows:
Seasonal inventory items: Depending on the nature of the business involved, it can be seen that business often has inventories that are not really finished goods, but are kept either to upsell inventory or for packaging purposes. Therefore, since they are only present with the company for a shorter time duration, they are classified as temporary current assets.
Prepaid Rent (or any other utility): It often occurs that businesses pay an excess of utility, or rent, during the normal course of the business. Hence, in this regard, it is quite important to note that these prepaid entries are considered to be temporary, since they do not always exist on the books, and only occur occasionally.
Therefore, these current assets are categorized as temporary current assets, because they may or may not be carried forward from one year to another.
Prepayment is an accounting term referred to the types of expenses not incurred yet but for which payment is made in advance.
As the economic benefits from such resources are not taken yet this is why it is classified as an asset rather than an expense and shown on the face of the balance sheet rather charging in the profit and loss statement.
Prepayments are those payments, the benefits of which are expected to flow in the future. Here it is necessary to note the difference between the prepayments and advance payments.
Pre-paid is an amount more often paid for the expenses, the benefits from such payments will flow to the entity in the following financial years however the advance payment is the payment made for goods/services without the receipt of goods/services.
In almost all cases, the payment for goods and services is made after the benefits of such services and goods are taken. For example, a payment to the contractor for building a five-story building is made after the completion of the whole project or on an installments basis as per the stage of completion.
In both of the cases whether payment is made at the end of the project after completion or installments basis are made after taking the benefits from the contractor’s services.
However, there are some services, for which payment is compulsory to be at the beginning of the period before taking economic benefits from such goods/services such as the pre-paid rent and payment made for insurance cover under a contract.
There are certain rules set by the accounting standards-setting organizations, according to which the economic resources owned by the entity must be recorded in books of the entity.
According to these rules, all those economic resources the benefits from which yet to taken are classified as an asset and the benefits of the resources of which are already taken shall be charged in the profit and loss statement.
This is the reason the pre-paid expense is classified as an asset and shown on the face of the balance sheet because the benefits from such payments will flow to the entity in upcoming financial years. Thus in short prepayment is the payment made in advance before its accrual.
There are many types of prepayments these payments are mostly made in a corporate environment but it can also be made on an individual basis.
Prepayments made in a corporate environment are made in one accounting period and it will provide benefit in upcoming accounting periods. The main difference between usual expenses is prepaid expense is the recording of expense i.e the usual expense is charged to profit and loss in a single step.
However the pre-paid expense is two steps, that is first it is recorded on the balance sheet as an asset and then charge to the profit and loss statement upon the fulfillment of conditions attached to the pre-paid expenses.
The prepayments made for any expense is a business activity, which is needed to be recorded in order to show the true and fair and clear financial picture of the entity.
For example, if we are making a prepayment to any insurance company for ensuring the factory building then we will record the event as a debit to the prepaid insurance account and credit to the cash or bank account.
Such prepaid insurance amount will be classified on the asset side of the balance sheet and charge to the profit and loss account as an expense upon completion of the insured period.
There are many examples where the business entity is required to pay for expenses in advance. Such payments are made in advance and upon the payment it is recorded as an asset, the examples of such payments are listed as under:
Advance rent paid for the occupation of a space for carrying on a business activities
Payments made for the insurance of a business asset in order to minimise the loss in case of any mishap
Assets acquired in order to complete the business operations and preparation of goods and services
Salaries paid to the employees if paid in advance according to the terms of contract defined in the employment contract
Any payments made to the authorities in advance under the law or regulation
Payments made for the utilities in advance; and
Interest payment made in advance
This is not an exhaustive list of the prepayments made by the business entities, there may be many other examples of payments made for the expenses according to the nature of the business entity.
Consignment inventory represents stock legally owned by one company or business but held by another. Usually, the risks and rewards associated with consignment inventory remain with the company that owns it.
Consignment inventory is common in industries where companies transfer their goods to the dealer, which distribute or sell them further. The dealer, in this case, is only responsible for its distribution or retail operations.
As mentioned, there are usually two parties involved in the consignment deal. The first party, the consignor, is the company that provides the goods. The other party, the consignee, is the company or business that holds the physical inventory.
The consignee also has the option to return any unsold or damaged goods to the consigner. Other names used for consignment inventory are consignment goods or consignment sales.
When it comes to the accounting treatment of consignment inventory, the standards are clear about it. Since the risks and rewards of the goods do not transfer due to the transfer, the consignor cannot record the inventory as sold.
However, some companies may still choose to convert inventory from one account to another to keep their records organized.
With consignment inventory, the consignor transfers the goods to the consignee, which sells the goods to customers. Once the consignee sells the goods, the risk and rewards related to the inventory get transferred.
The consignee also keeps a percentage of the sale proceeds and pays the consignor a predetermined sales amount.
Once the consignee sells the inventory, the consignor can record the sale amount. As with any other sale transaction, it consists of two double entries to the accounts.
The first double entry is to record the sale made through the consignee, while the second double entry is to record the decrease in inventory. Therefore, the consignor can only reduce its inventory account once it receives the sale proceeds.
On the other hand, if the consignee fails to sell all the goods transferred, they will return those goods to the consignor. In that case, the consignor doesn’t need to pass any double entry since the risks and rewards stay the same.
If the consignor had transferred the inventory into a different account, then they can convert the goods back to their finished goods account.
As mentioned, when the consignor transfers goods to the consignee, the risks and rewards still remain. Therefore, the consignor doesn’t need to pass a journal entry to the accounts.
However, some consignors may use the following double entry to transfer inventory into a different account, for the organization.
Once the consignee sells the goods, it will repay the consignor the sale proceeds. It is when the risks and rewards transfer and the consignor can record the sale.
As mentioned, the consignor must use two double entries to record the transaction. The first journal entry used to record the sale proceeds is as follows.
Cash or Bank
The next journal entry is to reduce the inventory. The treatment will differ according to whether the consignor has transferred the goods to a temporary consignment inventory account. The journal inventory is as follows.
Cost of sales
Consignment inventory / Finished goods
In case the consignee returns unsold goods, the consignor doesn’t need any accounting entries. However, if the consignor had transferred the goods to a temporary consignment inventory account, it must reverse the accounting treatment.
A company, ABC Co., transfers its goods to another company, XYZ Co., which further sells their goods to customers. At the start of the year, ABC Co. sends goods valued at $100,000 to XYZ Co.
Subsequently, at the end of the year, XYZ Co. returns $20,000 worth of goods to ABC Co.
For the $80,000 goods sold, XYZ Co. gives ABC Co. $120,000 sale proceeds collected from its customers through a bank transfer.
Firstly, ABC Co. must record the sale proceeds for goods sold by XYZ Co. The accounting treatment will be as follows.
Similarly, ABC Co. must record the transfer of its inventory to customers, which marks a transfer of risks and rewards. The accounting treatment is as follows.
Cost of sales
For the goods that XYZ Co. returned, ABC Co. does not need to pass any accounting entries.
Consignment inventory refers to goods transferred from a company to another party while still holding its risks and rewards.
Therefore, there are two parties in a consignment inventory deal, the consignor and the consignee. The accounting treatment for consignment inventory depends on whether the consignee sells the goods or not.
Goods in Transit indicates the stock that is bought from the purchaser and delivered through a dealer, nonetheless, the merchandise is in transit but still needs to arrive at the proposed buyer.
Towards the ending of an accounting time frame, such stock items permit exceptional consideration for accounting such merchandise are neither accessible at the dealer’s space nor at the buyer’s location.
As a presumable possibility, these items can remain disregarded during the way toward representing overall stock as such products are not genuinely available at both the buyer’s or the vendor’s place.
The accounting of goods on the way demonstrates whether the dealer or the buyer of the products has the proprietorship and who has compensated for conveyance. Normally, there is an organization (dispatching terms) between the vendor and the purchaser with respect to who should record these items in the accounting records.
Goods in transit refer to stock and different sorts of stock that have left the transportation dock of the merchant, yet has not arrived at the receiving end of the purchaser. The idea is utilized to demonstrate whether the purchaser or dealer of products has collected the goods, and who is has to pay for transport.
Preferably, either the vendor or the purchaser should record products on the way in its accounting records. The standard for doing so depends on the delivery terms related to the goods, which are:
FOB shipping point. In case the shipment is assigned as freight on board (FOB) shipping point, proprietorship moves to the purchaser when the shipment departs the dealer.
FOB destination. In case of the shipment assigned as freight on board (FOB) destination, proprietorship moves to the purchaser when the shipment shows up at the purchaser.
ABC Inc. is the wholesaler and XYZ Inc. is the buyer. ABC Inc. ships stock worth $50,000 on March 15, 2020, and it still has to arrive at XYZ Inc.
Figure out the organization that may record the merchandise on the way in the accounting books in case the conditions of the delivery freight on board (FOB) transporting point.
FOB delivering point implies that XYZ Inc. (buyer) will take responsibility for stock when it departs ABC Inc’s. transporting area.
Thus, ABC Inc. will record a sales transaction on March 15, 2020, while XYZ Inc. may note it as transit inventory on a similar date.
Here, ABC Inc. is the dealer and XYZ Inc. is the buyer, however, the terms of conveyance have been changed to FOB destination, and the shipment still has to arrive at XYZ Inc.’s. dock. The goods are required to be conveyed on April 5, 2020.
Figure out the organization that may note the goods in transit in their accounting books for such situation.
Under FOB destination, the buyer will note the sale contract on April 5, 2020, rather than March 15, 2020. Hence, for such a situation, XYZ Inc. will record the journal entry in the books of record on April 5, 2020.
Subsequently, there will be a contrast between the dealer and the buyer’s book attributable to the terms of shipment. While XYZ Inc. will note the exchange on April 5, 2020, however, ABC Inc. will record a similar exchange on March 15, 2020.
Goods In Transit Valuation
Recording stock relies upon the agreement with the vendor. Nevertheless, another concern is the goods in transit valuation, which should be perceived in the balance sheet.
It is required to account for insurance, transport fees, freight in, shipping into the stock valuation. The issue is should the costs be accrued with goods in transit or wait until they show up.
This relies upon the arrangement of the capable individual over each cost. In case the purchaser is answerable for it, at that point he should assess the expense to make accrue costs as a component of the goods in transit.
The purchaser will make accrue when we have a commitment to the provider, consequently not all the costs will be recorded simultaneously with goods in transit.
Treatment of Goods in Transit
The consolidated financial statement consolidates the parent and subsidiary balance sheet and income statement. In case there are goods in transit throughout the reporting date, it must be guaranteed that both parties account effectively for those goods.
The goods in transit actually have a place with the group (parent and subsidiary); hence, the balance must be in the consolidated balance sheet.
Nonetheless, the goods should not be counted as double. This may occur if the parent doesn’t record the sale of products however subsidiary records stock and accounts payable.
The accounting treatment is outlined as follows:
When the forwarding specialist arranges the transportation archives, (for example, the bill of filling, receipt, or air waybill), at that time the journal entry can be:
Goods in transit record
Goods/ Invoice receipt record
At the point of the goods in transit but to get from the buyer client, then the journal entry can be:
Goods/ Invoice receipt record
At the point the product is gotten by the buyer, then the journal entry can be:
Goods in transit account
For goods in transit accounting, the foremost problem to answer is if a deal has occurred, bringing about the entry of title to the purchaser. If so, the dealer records a sale and a receivable or money and excludes the good in the ending stock.
The buyer records the payable or the installment of money, the purchase, and takes account of the item for the completion stock.
Alternately, if the title has not changed or transferred, no purchase or sale has occurred, and consequently, the inventory is included for the seller’s ending inventory.
In short, goods in transit indicate at the time when the label of possession and threat goes from the vender to the purchaser.
Cash is the company’s current assets holding for small expenses in the office or for a certain large amount of cash transactions. For example, the company holds petty cash for making payments on small office expenses.
Sometimes, the company might keep a large amount of cash for making payments to certain suppliers that accept only cash rather than bank transactions like bank transfers or check.
The company might also holding the cash that its collect from customers but these kind of cash will be deposit into the company’s bank account in the following day.
It does not matter whether the cash is used for small or large payment and it does matter if the cash is collected from customers or from whatever sources, from an accounting perspective, cash is considered as assets and it is classified as current assets which are reported in the balance sheet.
Is cash debit or credit?
Before dive into the debit or credit, we need to assess what kind of financial statements element that cash belongs to. Once we know the exact element, then we can clearly know whether cash is debit or credit.
As we mentioned above, cash is the assets and clearly it is belonging to the assets element of the financial statements.
As long as it is belong to assets element, the rule of debit or credit is apply the same.
Assets reporting in the balance sheet or statement of financial position. Decreasing asset result in credit records and increasing assets result in debiting to assets.
For example, if the company purchase new computer, then asset is increasing. We need to debit assets.
The same as asset,
In financial statements, cash is debit when there is increasing in it. For example, the company receives the payment from the customers in cash. In this case, cash is increased and we need to debit it. If the cash is decreasing, then we need to record it on the credit side of the cash account.
For example, the company makes the payment to its supplier in cash. The cash is decreasing since the company making payments to its supplier through cash.
Cash journal entries:
The journal entries of cash transactions are similar to the journal entries of others assets account.
Here is how we record cash when it is increasing due to correct from customers,
For example, the company receives the cash payment from its credit customer amounting to $1,000. Then, the entries are as below:
Here is how we record cash when it is decreasing due to payment to suppliers,
Example, the company purchase office supplies amouting to USD500 and it pays its supplies throught petty cash, then the entries are as blow:
Cash as an asset:
An asset is defined as the resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity. Another criterion is:
The inflow of economic benefits to the entity is probable
The cost/value can be measured reliably.
Similarly, the value of cash can be measured reliably since it can be easily counted. Cash is always in the control of the company either with itself or its custodian as a bank. Cash is classified as a current asset. Current assets are assets that can be easily converted to cash and cash equivalents within a year or working capital cycle.
Cash can be also classified into tangible assets since it has a physical presence and can be touched. Cash can be defined as an operating asset since it is required in the daily operation of the business. In another sense, they are used to generate revenue from the company’s core operations.
Features of cash:
Durability: Cash is highly durable and lasts long unless torn. It can be exchanged from banks if torn.
Portability: It can be taken from one place to another easily. It is light weighted.
Divisibility: Cash can be easily divided into smaller values. For example, a thousand-rupee note can be easily divided into 10 hundred-rupee notes.
Limited supply: Cash is printed by central banks as per requirement and is in limited supply in the markets.
Uniformity: Cash of different values comes in the same shape, size, and value.
Acceptability: Since currency notes are printed and allowed for use by central banks, they are accepted everywhere.
Uses of cash:
Cash can be used for various purposes. Such uses can be categorized into three main uses viz.
Cash is used for payment of operating expenses. The different expenses used for cash payments are:
Payment to account payables and creditors
Payment of business expenses
Payment of interest to lenders
Payments for purchase of raw materials
Payment for income taxes
Cash paid to vendors and suppliers
Receipt from sales and debtors
Cash is used for investment purpose. The different investment activities are:
Purchase of fixed assets
Investment in securities
Selling or leasing of fixed assets
Selling off securities
Cash is used for the payment of loans, dividends. It is used for transactions involving debt, equity, dividends. It is used to manage the capital structure of the company. Cash moves here between a firm and its owners, investors, and creditors. The financing use of cash involves:
Issue of stock equity, debt
Payment of loan, dividend
Raising loans and debentures
Redemption of debt
Conclusion: The item ‘cash’ is therefore DEBIT. It is shown as an asset owing to the advantage it brings to the business. It is therefore shown under the Current Assets of the Asset side of the Balance sheet.