What are fixed assets?
Fixed assets are owned by an entity with a useful life of more than one year and cannot be converted into cash or cash equivalent within one year.
This group of assets is not reported as expenses when the entity purchases them. Yet, they report purchasing and other related costs on the balance sheet.
The entity charges the assets expenses based on the entity and their useful life using the applicable depreciation methods.
Reporting in financial statements:
Fixed assets are the balance sheet items. They are reported at their book value at the end of the accounting period in different categories based on nature, their use, and the depreciation rate.
Accumulated depreciation is the credit account in the balance sheet under the fixed assets section. It is used to record all depreciation expenses up to the reporting date. Fixed assets affect the income statement through depreciation expenses that the entity charges during the period.
General Categories of Fixed Assets:
Entity reports fixed assets in the balance sheet; normally, assets are categorized into different categories based on types of assets and their usage.
The following are the general list categories of fixed assets:
- Buildings include an office building, warehouse, and other similar kinds. Their useful life is normally longer compared to other fixed assets.
- Computer equipment: Laptops, desktops, servers, printers, and other similar equipment. Useful life is around three to five years depending on the type of equipment.
- Computer Software: These are the software that the entity purchases or business processing or could be the software that the entity builds by their team.
- Furniture and fixtures: Tables, chairs, closets, cabinets, and others.
- Intangible assets: These are a franchise, copyright, trademark, and sometimes software also included here.
- Land: Land is classed separately from building and land improvement. Land could not be depreciated.
- Leasehold improvements are mainly related to the decoration or interior expenses incurred by the entity on the leased office or building.
- Machinery: This is the list of machines example cutting machines
- Vehicles: These are cars, trucks, and other related vehicles.
There are several factors that we use to categorize fixed assets. Those include the type or nature of assets and how those assets are used by the entity and sometimes based on the rate we charge fixed assets.
For example, machinery and vehicles are categorized into two different categories. These two types of fixed assets we use these assets are completely different even though their useful life might be the same.
Machinery is for production purposes in general, while vehicles are used for transportation or delivery.
Buildings and leasehold improvements are also categorized differently. Buildings are the property owned by the entity. For example, office buildings and warehouses owned by the entity.
However, some entities might rent offices, buildings, and warehouses to run their business. And the original decorations or interiors might not need entity expectations.
In this case, the entity might improve the leased building or warehouse at its cost. This is how leasehold improvement occurs and why they are differently categorized from the building.
The benefit of fixed assets categorization:
There are many benefits that an entity can obtain from the proper categorization of fixed assets. For example, fixed assets accountants might perform reconciliation between accounting records to the listing they use to help control the assets.
Proper categorization could help them to do the reconciliation effectively and correctly. Proper categorization of assets could also assist the accountant in doing fixed assets depreciation calculations correctly and effectively.