What is Return on Assets?

Return on Assets is one of the efficiency ratios that use to measure and assess how efficiently the company’s assets are being used. The main indicators to measure the efficiency of assets in this ratio are Net Income and Total Assets.

Return on assets is calculated by using net income over the total assets that the entity uses to generate that Income.

This ratio could be used in the company where assets are the main resources that use to generate revenue. For example, a manufacturing company or hotel.

However, this ratio is not suitable to use to assess the company where assets are not the main revenue generator. For example, consultant or services companies.


The formula of Return On Assets : Net Income / ( Total Assets)

  • Finding the Net Income is not as hard as it is normally provided in the income statement. Net Income is normally at a specific period of time. If you do a benchmark by comparing the ROA of one profit centre, investment centre or company. It is a good idea to select the Net Income in the same period of time. Otherwise, your analysis is non-sense.
  • For Total Assets, sometimes they use Average Total Assets. The most recommended is when the Average Total Assets are available, then it is recommended to select, but if it doesn’t, let use Total Assets. Whatever you use, there must be consistency.

What do I mean by that?

Well, let say you are comparing two investment centre of their Return on Assets. Then you should select the net income from the same period of time and the same nature of assets, say Total Assets.

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Okay, now you have learned about the formula and explanation of Return on Assets. Let move to the example together,

Here we go,

Example and Calculation:

The following is the example of Return on Assets and to calculate it.


ABC Company has Not Income: USD 50,000,000 for the period 1 January to 31 December 2016 and the Total Assets at the end of 31 December 2016 was USD100,000,000. The total Assets at the beginning of the years was USD 90,000,000.

ABC Company is operating in the manufacturing industry and the Industry Average of ROA is: 1  Previous year, ROA of ABC Company was: 1.05.

Discuss ROA of ABC Company.


Based on the formula about, the ROA is Net Income / ( Total Assets). As per the scenario, the Total Net Income for the year is USD 50,000,000. For Total Assets, in this case, we use Average Total Assets because the previous year Total Assets is available.

Average Total Assets is (USD 100,000,000/ USD 90,000,000)/2 = USD 95,000,000

Therefore, ROA = USD 50,000,000/ USD 95,000,000 = 0.52 or 52%

Return On Assets as Performance Measurement

In this part, we will discuss on the using of Return on Assets of Performance Management. This also include the advantages and disadvantages of using ROA.

As mention above, Return On Assets is used to measure the efficiency of assets using to generate the Net Income, and this is the Financial Indicators which normally use in the manufacturing industry.

This Return on Assets is normally benchmark with the industry average, competitor, and previous year. For better analysis, the trend of this ratio for at least three years would be more beneficial.

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There are advantages and disadvantages of using ROA as a performance indicator in order to assess the company’s performance as well as to reward management.

For the advantages, the ROA uses the percentage, therefore, we could compare it to the other companies that have different size of assets. ROA also very to understand by non-accounting managers and also it is very easy to calculate.

Besides advantages, there are also many disadvantages to using ROA  as performance indicators. ROA using accounting information for calculation and it is commonly affected by management judgment.

Accounting policies is one among those factors. ROA uses percentage but it does not show the real value added to the shareholders or the company.

The serious disadvantages of ROA are it motivate management to use the old assets and discourage them not to invest in the new assets.

Interpretation and Deep Analysis:

Now, let see how is this ROA mean to ABC Company.

Based on the calculation about, current ROA is only 0.52 while the previous year ROA was  1.05. Based on this ratio, we can say that the current performance is poor than the previous year in term of efficiency ( using assets to generate revenue).

This might be because of low productivity, decreasing demand or highly competitive in the market. However, compared to the industry average, ROA is 1, ABC Company still not performing well enough.

There are many reasons why ROA of ABC Company is decreasing. First, probably not all of the company assets are using.

Let say, their many machines are idle assets as the result of the low purchase order or no technical personnel stand by to control those machines. These could cause the company to generate less profit than the previous year and the industry average.

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Another reason is the accounting technique used by the management of the company. ROA is significantly affected by accounting policy or it can simply mean management could trick on accounting policies to get the accounting result as they want.

For example, Not Income is affected by accounting depreciation which is mainly based on judgment.

An additional reason why the ROA of the company is decreasing probably because of this year managements have disposed many of the old assets and replace them the new one.

This movement of assets could cause a large amount of depreciation being a charge to these years and result from decrease Net Income.


For better analysis and interpretation, all of the factors internal and external effect on the ROA should be included and taking into account like demand in the market or ROA of industry average as well as competitors.

Some internal factors like using old assets, replacement and changing the accounting policies also significantly affect ROA.